Experts all over the world have been puzzling over this for the last few months, how the corona virus works in the body. The researcher, Sandro Zumpe, is now the first in the world to have succeeded in deciphering the hitherto unknown function of the virus and its path in the body.
The virus behaves differently than expected when entering the body Until now, it was assumed that the main entry point into the human body was predominantly through the ACE receptors, but this is unfortunately incorrect.
The virus uses a kind of “oscillation unsporation” to enter host cells, which enables it to enter the cell at many different places.
Once there, it mercilessly exploits its biological advantage and inflates the cell in all directions due to existing ones. The result is squid-like tentacles (filopodia), which grab and infect the surrounding cells. The resulting speed of the cell influence, provides already once for the first “Knock Down” of the body. The formation of these “filopodia” has already been confirmed in a scientific publication of the University of California (Cell Journal), but could not be explained until today.
Oscillation! One of the main weapons of the corona virus
It carries these in the nucleocapsid, which simultaneously strengthens its lipid outer shell and makes it more difficult to drive. This also makes it possible for it to remain in the air longer as a virion, or to stay on surfaces. The result is an extended range of possible infections. A further advantage of this is an extremely fast mutation of the entire genome or individual components such as S-protein or N-protein. Accessory proteins are thus also modified on their own, for example in the form of an extension (ORF 3 protein), changes in ORF 9B, ORF 14 protein and others.
Disruption of important protein functions and RNA transport pathways
A study of the Science magazine, shows that the virus blocks the protein function of ribosomes. This is done by its own protein called Nsp1. A blocking of the entrance is also associated with this. Sandro Zumpe could further find out that the protein synthesis is put out of action by disturbance of the TOM-complex and thus also a negative influence on the mRNA transport into the mitochondria takes place. This also leads to problems of mitochondrial tRNA import and the associated damage to mitochondrial protein synthesis. The consequences of this are protracted fatigue symptoms, most of which are reported by former Covid-19 patients.
Damage to mitochondrial long-term effects
An infection with the corona virus should be taken very seriously, since it permanently destroys the mitochondria, their cytochrome oxidase and ATP production damages. Here it comes to a deformation of these and consequences, in the form of exhaustion and heaviness.
Manipulation of the virus of important metabolic pathways
The researcher also discovered that the corona virus, AMPK and mTOR, which are among the most important metabolic regulators, also specifically influences the associated coactivator PGC-1alpha (main regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis).
AMPK (5-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) is an endogenous enzyme with an important role in the energy metabolism of humans. It is involved in oxygen regulation and is regulated by AMP and ATP levels. AMP is able to suppress taste, which explains the loss of taste and olfactory irritation in many Covid-19 patients. Also the PGC-1alpha mentioned before is able to suppress taste and smell by influencing the glial cells.
The virus is also capable of rapidly reducing the production of ATP, resulting in a massive “cytokine storm”, which is feared in Covid-19.
It also negatively reduces the mitochondrial function of leukocytes and thus their ability to defend themselves against pathogens.
Immune reaction as one of the greatest puzzles
In the last months, ever more studies, which the researcher Sandro Zumpe, already found out some time ago, occupied the importance of T cell and B cell reactions with an immune response and accompanying immune memory.
He also found out that also their memory cells play an immense role in contributing to a long-lasting immunization level. In current research, he has now succeeded in clarifying the key to an immune status that will last for many years. The NK-cells are crucial for this and the immunological Missing-self-hypothesis and was found. Here, a connection between the lymphocytes involved, the mitochondrial function of the leukocytes and a summary cytokine storm was found. NK cells kill other target cells if they do not have a signal molecule on their surface. To do this, they send perforin and cranzymes that induce apoptosis (cell death).
The virus skilfully masks the NK cells and uses them against one’s own body and also prevents a long-lasting immune status can arise opposite them.
The virus inserts its genetic material as an RNA sponge into the gene regulation
The University of Alabama and a publication in the Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, could show that the virus sucks off signal molecules, by which damaged cells destroy themselves.
Furthermore, his genetic material acts as a so-called RNA sponge, which intercepts important miRNA and thus opens up the possibility for him to intervene specifically in the gene regulation of the body. Sandro Zumpe found out, however, that by the fact of binding of miRNA to mRNA, of course this can be specifically regulated by the virus and with it important transport routes.
In addition, he also succeeded in finding out that here, too, the absorption of miRNA by incRNA and its mediated gene regulation. He also found out the corresponding relationship and involved interaction of XIST (female specific incRNA) and miRNA.
SARS-COV-2: Reproduction rate is much higher than in other viruses
Due to its specific nature, the virus is able to stop and go Principle of protein production in the cell, through involved, kinase R and phosphatase 1 to accelerate. This is required for the cell to reproduce itself. As a result, it replicates much faster.